Sujit Choudhry: A World Renowned Expert in Comparative Constitutional Law

Comparative law studies differences and similarities between laws of differing countries. It is the study of different legal systems, including civil law, socialist law, Canon law, common law, and religiously-based laws. This study involves the analysis and description of varying legal systems, even if the differences are not noticeable. Comparative law has become very important in centuries, with the presences of democratization, economic globalization, and internationalism.

This academic discipline studies different legal systems and their constitutive elements. It also studies how all of these elements combine into one system. Numerous disciplines have developed into branches of comparative law and include comparative commercial law, comparative administrative law, comparative civil law, comparative constitutional law, and comparative criminal law.

Comparative law’s purpose is to help perfect effected legal systems, to contribute to the unification of legal systems to a larger or smaller scale, and to attain a deeper knowledge of the legal systems in question. This study can also be useful for law and economics, and sociology of law.

Sujit Choudhry is a foremost expert on comparative law. He specializes in comparative constitutional law and has been an advisor to numerous constitution building processes in places like Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Nepal, Libya, Jordan, Egypt, South Africa, and Ukraine. His research is internationally recognized in a wide variety of issues like constitutional design, transitions to peaceful democratic politics, decentralization and secessions, constitutional courts, language policy, bills of rights, minority and groups rights, and basic questions in the methodology of comparative constitutional law.

As an author, Choudhry has published over 90 articles, reports, and book chapters on the subject. His writings have been published by the likes of Oxford and Cambridge. He is on the Board of Editors of the International Journal of Constitutional Law, the Editorial Advisory Board for Cambridge Studies, and is a member of the Executive Committee of the International Society of Public Law.

Choudhry founded the Center for Constitutional Transitions, and is currently helping to lead three different global collaborative research projects. He is a member of the United Nations Mediation Roster, and has been a consultant to the World Bank Institute and the United Nations Development Program.

Learn more about Sujit Choudhry’s accomplishments by visiting

Thor Halvorssen, Champion of the Oppressed

Thor Halvorssen was born in 1976 to a wealthy and highly politically active family in Venezuela.

His family wealth was built primarily on the representation and advocacy for Venezuelan corporations and his father was deeply involved in public policy, anti-narcotics campaigns and politics.

Halvorssen began his human rights activism career while he was doing undergraduate studies at the University of Pennsylvania. At the time, his father had been arrested for anti-narcotics activities and was in prison in Venezuela. He went to bat on his father’s behalf, raising attention to the power of the cartels and human rights violations. He was able to garner the support of many organizations including Amnesty International. Once his father became free, Halvorssen’s activities were noticed by The United Nations and he was offered a position as the directorship of the Pan-American Committee.

Since graduating from The University of Pennsylvania he has staunchly been a supporter, promoter and encourager of the human rights faction. His activism against the atrocities against human rights, slavery, child labor, political dictatorship has been written about such esteemed publications as Time, The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post.

Halvorssen is often seen as the voice for the downtrodden in international circuits and is an energetic and dynamic speaker on the subjects his is most passionate about.

In 2009 Halvorssen became involved in two human right coalitions on the international scene. The Oslo Freedom Forum is the Norwegian based idea exchange forum which brings together notable heads of state annually as a think tank to advocate human rights efforts globally. The Children Peace Movement is a Czech-based humanitarian effort which attempts to bridge the gap between children, adolescents as well as adults.

He has worked tirelessly as the director of The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education and later at the Human Rights Foundation; raising awareness of human rights violations and civil injustices. His vigorous work has spanned the globe as his contributions have aided the cohesiveness of bringing delegates from opposing political parties together in the fight for the equal justice and treatment of oppressed people from all walks of life.

Without limits to boundaries of status, wealth, education or race, his efforts have largely focused on the needs of these people in an overall push to free them from the bondage of dictatorships.

Thor Halvorssen currently involved in the production of films adapted to the various causes in which he is impassioned including political tyranny as well as the human struggle of the common man in subjugated societies.

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New Zealand: A Model of Tax Transparency

According to a recent coverage in the media, the foreign trusts in New Zealand make the country sound thrilling. This news is so exciting to the wealthy individuals, exotic lands, and complex financial deals. For most things associated with tax, the truth is more mundane.

Let’s deal with the biggest elephant in the room first. According to most people, New Zealand is a tax haven. The real scenario is that New Zealand is not a tax haven. The OECD has an updated list of the tax havens in the world. New Zealand appears nowhere in its schedule. In the future, New Zealand is unlikely to appear in the list. The main component about tax havens is that they have no taxes. There is also a lack of transparency among tax havens. The laws also inhibit information exchange among states and governments. New Zealand does not qualify based on the above characteristics. Moreover, the country does not have a highly-secretive banking industry.

The transparency gold standard is the 2002 Information Exchange Model Agreement to administer tax laws. For having implemented the international tax standard, New Zealand is among the first nations to be white listed in OECD. Because of the way the country handles foreign trusts and the trustee requirements, New Zealand has stayed ahead of the rest to demonstrate leadership in tax transparency. These rules stated in the state’s tax laws allows for information exchange with other governments requesting for this information.

In 2006, Michale Cullen introduced the new legislation in the area after extensive research. Under his leadership in the country, the resident trustee in New Zealand is required to submit a Foreign Disclosure Trust form by the IRD. For this reason, they will keep a financial record for tax purposes. They include distributions, settlement details, trust deeds, trusts liabilities and assets details, and the income generated by the trustee. The trustee must keep all information related to the business carried out.

New Zealand records their information in English. You will attract penalties if you fail to concur. In 2011, these powers were enhanced the world standard money enactment laundering regulation.

Geoffrey Cone graduated from Otago University with a bachelor’s degree in Law. He also holds a post-graduate diploma in trust and tax laws. In 1980, he commenced his practice in Auckland, New Zealand. He moved to Christchurch and became a partner at a leading law company in the area. He also worked as a litigator in the British West Indies.

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Finding A Good Lawyer To Hire

Are you a business person or corporate executive in Brazil? Do you have a problem that needs to be resolved by a legal practitioner? Want a powerful lawyer to advice and guide you properly?


Legal problems can occur unexpectedly, and when they do it is imperative to take appropriate steps to resolve them.


You need to hire a lawyer as soon as possible if you are dealing with a business issue such as a dispute with an associate or a partner. There are lots of legal representatives and law firms in Brazil that render reliable representation and advice regarding business related issues. Not all attorneys in Brazil are suitable for your situation. It is definitely essential to pick an attorney who has competence in handling the type of case you are dealing with.

Check with reliable Law Associations and Lawyer Directories, for a list of reputable lawyers in Brazil. And be sure you specify the particular area of Brazil you’re interested in, and the type of lawyer you need. A lot of people have been successful in getting a good lawyer, by using these resources.


Choosing an attorney is a big decision. It is important to choose someone who has a proven track record.


Ricardo Tosto de Oliveira Carvalho is a powerful litigation lawyer in Brazil. Focusing on litigation, Ricardo Tosto’s competence as a corporate and business litigation lawyer has grown tremendously over the years. Ricardo Tosto owns and operates a well-established law office that deals with business law cases. He has substantial experience representing large corporations, multinational companies and people from all professions.


 Ricardo Tosto strives to provide his clients with the best possible representation and 100 % focus on their case. Ricardo Tosto has a unique courtroom style and notable negotiation strategy, which has earned him a great reputation in the legal community. He is well known for his special ability to develop winning litigation strategies. Clients also praise Ricardo Tosto for his law firms’ team of dedicated professionals. Mr Ricardo Tosto is the clear choice for any individual or company that needs effective representation in cases related to business or corporate law in Brazil.

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How Ricardo Tosto de Oliveira has Created a Positive impact in the Brazilian Law Sector

The law is one of the popular professional fields in Brazil. However, for one to qualify as a lawyer, there are certain requirements one should meet. Historically, the Brazilian Law traces its roots from Portuguese Law. This is because Brazil was colonized by the Portuguese and gained independence back in 1822.


Requirements for Lawyers in Brazil

  1. Pass Vestibular and Attend a Law School

In Brazil, a student is only enrolled in the university when she or he has passed the Vestibular examination. The exam is usually integrated into the Brazilian High School National Exam. A law degree course takes a minimum of five years and is offered by both public and private universities.

  1. Internship

Internships are usually provided by law firms and other companies that offer law-related services. It integrates theoretical knowledge students acquired in class with real-time law practice. Law students are required to submit internship applications to the law firms of their choice.

  1. Pass the OAB exams


The OAB (Ordem dos Advogados de Brasil) is Brazilian leading Bar Association. It sets the regulations that law graduates and professionals should meet before practicing law. The OAB exam is administered thrice every year. It comprises of a multiple-choice section and a selective section where a candidate can choose to specialize in tax law, criminal law, administrative law, labor law, constitutional law, or civil law. The candidate must attain the 60 percent pass mark in the provided quizzes to qualify as a lawyer.


About Ricardo Tosto de Oliveira


 Ricardo is a reputable Brazilian lawyer, who owns one of the biggest litigation law firms in Brazil. He majorly handles litigation cases. He has represented several renowned companies and public figures in court and has a good track of record for most of the cases he has handled. Besides court trials, Ricardo also provides legal advice to established Brazilian companies, the government, and politicians.


He is among the first litigation lawyers in Brazil to offer litigation services based on the mass actions model. This model has helped companies that have once sought his legal advice, to grow in terms of performance. While Ricardo’s company, Tosto e Barros, has regional offices in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro, its main base of operations is in São Paulo.

Ricardo Tosto is at Your Service

Brazil has many law schools that produce a good number of lawyers each year. It is ranked third in a report that seeks to determine the number of licensed lawyers in each country. There are more than one million professional lawyers in Brazil ready to attend to the legal needs of its 200 million population.

This enormous number of lawyers can be explained more clearly with the number of law schools in the country. It currently has more law schools than any other country in the world. Every institution is carefully vetted by professional bodies to ensure that they offer quality education to aspiring lawyers. All these law schools train students to handle a wide variety of legal problems experienced in the country with expertise and professionalism.

To ensure quality, the government through the ministry of education constantly monitors the progress of 1200 law programs offered in Brazilian law schools.

One of the individuals that represents Brazilian law with utmost respect and professionalism is Ricardo Tosto de Olivera Carvalho. His career started in a small law firm where he slowly blossomed to become one of the most successful lawyers with vast experience in corporate litigation. He has his own law firm, which is currently among the largest in Brazil.

Ricardo has an impressive track record as a licensed lawyer. He has come to the aid of many people from different backgrounds and ages. He has also been instrumental in successful legal litigation cases that affect companies and large corporations including the government of Brazil. Politicians from different origins and different ideologies are among his large pool of happy customers.

Besides practicing law, Ricardo is an active participant in initiatives that seek to counteract the dynamism in the legal profession. He is a pioneer of many legal mechanisms that are used nowadays in the country’s legal community. He has been a mentor to many and a leader to his firm.

Ricardo is a graduate of Mackenzie-SP with a degree in Law. He is a former legal superintendent of Alusa Group. When he is free, he writes articles and books on Brazilian newspapers and magazines.